Here are the top 10 Internet safety terms you need to know

Anti-virus software

Anti-virus software can be installed onto a computer to keep it safe from viruses. The software will scan the computer and alert the user if a virus is found. The affected files will then be deleted, quarantined or cleaned.

Cyber criminals

A cyber criminal is somebody who uses the internet maliciously for their own gain. Their crimes may include things like identity theft, spamming, pharming and other types of internet fraud.


A firewall works as a barrier between a network of computers and any external computers. In most cases, one computer on the network will work as the firewall. All external information will have to travel through this computer to get to the others on the network, and the firewall will filter out any information which does not conform to rules which you have pre-configured.


Hackers are users who modify and create hardware and software. This can be for positive reasons, but some hackers are cyber criminals and instead create malware such as viruses and Trojan horses.


Pharming is a process where traffic is redirected to a fake website from a legitimate one by a hacker. This is a method used to steal people’s personal information such as passwords and bank details.


Malware is the name for any kind of malicious software. Some examples of malware are viruses, Trojan horses and spyware.


Phishing is another way in which cyber criminals can steal personal details. They send mass emails which link recipients to fake websites which are made to look like the real website of a company such as a bank, so that people will be tricked into entering their personal information.


Spyware is made up of unwanted programs which infect computers and take advantage of them for commercial gain. Spyware programs can steal personal information, produce pop-up advertisements, monitor web browsing activity for marketing purposes and more.

Trojan horse

A Trojan horse is a program which has the appearance of a trustworthy application, but in reality is malicious. Trojan horses can act unexpectedly, and whilst they do not replicate like viruses do, they are still dangerous.


A virus is a file which attaches on to other files and multiplies. This usually happens without the user knowing or giving consent, and whilst some viruses are used for good purposes, such as getting rid of malicious viruses, most viruses are dangerous.